Glossary of Legal Terms
Evidence, which can include testimony, documents, expert statements or photographs, can be introduced by either side to support that a position is either true or not true. Any evidence introduced must be relevant to the case at hand.
Indictable offences are the most serious offences under the Criminal Code and they come with more serious punishments, up to a maximum penalty of life in prison.
Plea bargaining is the negotiation between the prosecution and the defence whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser offence.
The Supreme Court of Canada has said that reasonable doubt “falls much closer to absolute certainty than to proof on a balance of probabilities” and “that something less than absolute certainty is required, and that something more than probable guilt is required."
Summary convictions are used for lesser offences with penalties, fines and short jail time. They reflect the majority of offences as defined in the Code.